Sharing the bead-to-bead protection of Duraskin, the Hardshell casing of this folding tyre wraps further into the sidewall with the extra-wide PolyX Breaker covering the entire tread strip from shoulder-to-shoulder. Great for Winter use. The long distance runner. A durable carbon black mixture, a well regarded puncture protection system and the DuraSkin™-anti-cut fabric turn the GatorSkin into a real long distance runner. In varying widths of 23mm and 25mm it can be used on the way to work as well as training for road races or for sportives and audax. A durable, tough tyre at a really nice price. HardShell Puncture protection and mileage are the strengths of Hardshell-ProTection. A wider PolyX Breaker®, the specialist against punctures under the tread centre and shoulders provides for great reliability. The three ply – each layer with 60 TPI – carcass covers the entire tyre and makes it a real bastion against urban detritus. The outer sidewalls of the tyre are reinforced with DuraSkin® fabric providing even more reliability due to the casing being so well protected. Hardshell tyres are the puncture-resistant flagship amongst racing tyres – produced exclusively in Germany.
This study examined the extent to which land tenure and forest tenure are secured in Tanzania. It was motivated by the urgent need to solve the adverse environmental problems caused by climate change in the world today. The measures that have been devised by the international community under the UNFCCC to curb the problem within the shortest time possible include Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+). This initiative was the focal point of this study with particular reference to Tanzania. he successful implementation of REDD+ requires the implementing countries to ensure that land tenure and forest tenure are secure and clear. This study draws upon experiences from the Participatory Forest Management and the ongoing REDD+ pilot projects in Tanzania, to examine the legal implications of unclear and insecure land and forest tenures in the implementation of REDD+ projects in the country. The study found that unclear and insecure land and forest tenures pose challenges when it comes to assigning carbon rights, sharing REDD+ benefits and controlling leakages.
Our approach includes the production of food, energy, and carbon offsets in a way that enhances profitability at the farm-level while enabling surrounding communities to benefit from high quality food products, environmental improvement, economic development and, ultimately, quality of life. Using an optimal spatial control framework and an agent-based simulation model, we apply this analysis to the case of pasture-based beef (PBB) in West Virginia. Both an intertemporal component and a spatial component are involved since clustering systems are enhanced when key players are interconnected over space. This is accomplished by using an optimal spatial control framework as the basis of a NetLogo agent-based model (ABM). This model is intended to provide a foundation for developing agglomeration economies in which other locations are able to supply resources to given locations - or to serve as input markets - by taking advantage of the spatially integrated nature of the agriculture industry. The spatial component provides the basis for regional economic development through clustering among the agricultural and other sectors sharing locally produced inputs/outputs in the supply chain.
REDD/REDD+ is an emerging market based approach under UNFCCC and has become mechanism to mitigate climate change and enhance carbon stock in Forest. The context of forestry and socioeconomic setting in Nepal is of the unique type, and Nepal has to compete with the countries like Brazil and Indonesia for forest resource and with the countries like USA and Canada for other resources. Since, Nepal is well-known for CBFM in world- REDD/REDD+ mechanism must include the Community Forests while implementing it, but we have lack of necessary institutional and legal framework to support for. Benefit sharing and payment mechanism is the topic of hottest debate to address in this context, apprehending the scenario- this book attempted to explore prospects from grass-root level to address the issue analyzing reflection from concerned stakeholders and communities.
The international scene brought to light the environmental problem with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1992. Then, the third Conference of the Parties agreed to establish a new Protocol: the Kyoto Protocol. Its objective is the stabilization of atmospheric concentrations of GHG at a level that would prevent dangerous interference with the climate system. The Protocol introduced mechanisms which can be used by a country which anticipates an excess on the ceiling of permitted emissions. : it caps its carbon emissions at a certain level and then permits firms and industries the right to emit a stated amount of carbon dioxide over a time period. Firms are then free to trade these credits in a free market. The objective of this research is to examine how the Kyoto Protocol can be modified to efficiently tackle global warming. This research does not intend to weight out the controversies rising by the Protocol but to analyze it how it failed. The challenge of this Protocol was in its novelty. Nowadays, it is to make it useful. We demonstrate the weakness of the protocol through two issues: Human rights and the unbalance sharing of the projects.
When people were asked about the benefits of the project, their immediate response was that they attended training courses, but when one probed into the benefits of attending training, this was mainly associated with the per diem that they received during the training time. The project ultimately provides only 22 permanent jobs for the local community. Sharing mechanisms of the income from carbon selling seems problematic because of numerous institutional weaknesses, both in cooperatives' capacity and autonomy which leads us to question the future of Sustainable development aspects in general. The overall project outcomes in terms of Sustainable development will not help to live up to the 'win-win' rhetoric that it vows to uphold.
This book covers policy proposals and interim contracts, assesses the positions of various Iraqi political actors and examines the potential significance for international foreign policy goals in Iraq. Despite a lack of progress in reaching agreements on the hydro-carbon sector and revenue sharing legislation to set new conditions for the management of the country s significant oil and gas resources, development in Iraq s oil and gas sector is moving forward. The passage of the oil and gas sector framework and revenue sharing legislation will be seen as significant milestones by International governments and International Oil Companies (IOC s). This would provide evidence of the Iraqi government s dedication to promoting political reconciliation and providing a solid foundation for long term economic development in Iraq. Interim revenue sharing mechanisms have been introduced due to the lack of new legislation. Additionally, both the Federal Government (the Federal Oil Ministry-MoO) and the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) (the Regional Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy) have made oil and gas development deals with foreign firms. The MoO is working with existing regulation from the previous political and administrational regime, while the Regional Ministry of Resource and Energy Kurdistan-Iraq has designed its own laws and regulations, which the Federal Government has not yet recognized. There is wide recognition among Iraqis of the importance of oil and gas revenue for the Iraqi economy. Most groups see the need for new legal and policy guidelines for the development of the country s oil and natural gas resources. However, Iraq s Council of Representatives (parliament) has not yet considered the proposed legislation due to ongoing political discord and general political instability. There are strong differences on key issues between Iraqi critics and supporters of various proposed solutions. These include the appropriate role and powers of federal and regional authorities in regulating oil and gas development, the conditions and degree of potential foreign participation in the oil and gas sectors, and proposed formulas and mechanisms for equitably sharing oil and gas revenue. Simultaneously, there are strong disagreements on related discussions about the administrative status of the city of Kirkuk and proposed amendments to articles of Iraq s constitution that outline federal and regional oil and gas rights.The U.S. and UK military strategy in Iraq seeks to lay the ground work for an environment in which Iraqis can resolve core political differences in order to ensure national stability and security. However, it is not yet certain whether the proposed oil and gas legislation and ongoing interim efforts to develop Iraq s energy resources will support harmony or create deeper political tension. The United States and its allies face difficult decisions regarding how to work with Iraqis on assorted policy proposals, related constitutional reforms and oil and gas development contracts, and at the same time encouraging their Iraqi counterparts to ensure that the content of proposed laws, amendments and contracts reflect acceptable political compromises.In the 1920s a wide-ranging concession was granted to a consortium of oil companies known as the Turkish Petroleum company and later as the Iraq Petroleum Company. This was the beginning of oil exploration in Iraq. The nationalization of Iraq s oil resources and production was finished by 1975. From 1975 to 2003, oil production and export operations were entirely state operated. However, from the early 1980s until the toppling of Saddam Hussein s government in 2003, the negative effects of war, international sanctions, a shortage of investments and technology and, in many cases, mismanagement caused difficulties for Iraq s hydrocarbon infrastructure.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! In chemistry, polarity refers to a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule having an electric dipole. Polar molecules can bond together due to dipole. Dipole intermolecular forces between one molecule (or part of a large molecule) with asymmetrical charge distribution and another molecule also with asymmetrical charge distribution. Molecular polarity is dependent on the difference in electronegativity between atoms in a compound and the asymmetry of the compound's structure. For example, a molecule of water is polar because of the unequal sharing of its electrons in a "bent" structure, whereas methane is considered non-polar because the carbon shares the electrons with the hydrogen atoms uniformly. Polarity underlies a number of physical properties including surface tension, solubility, and melting and boiling-points.
An interdisciplinary research unit consisting of 30 teams in the natural, economic and social sciences analyzed biodiversity and ecosystem services of a mountain rainforest ecosystem in the hotspot of the tropical Andes, with special reference to past, current and future environmental changes. The group assessed ecosystem services using data from ecological field and scenario-driven model experiments, and with the help of comparative field surveys of the natural forest and its anthropogenic replacement system for agriculture.The book offers insights into the impacts of environmental change on various service categories mentioned in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005): cultural, regulating, supporting and provisioning ecosystem services. Examples focus on biodiversity of plants and animals including trophic networks, and abiotic/biotic parameters such as soils, regional climate, water, nutrient and sediment cycles. The types of threats considered include land use and climate changes, as well as atmospheric fertilization. In terms of regulating and provisioning services, the emphasis is primarily on water regulation and supply as well as climate regulation and carbon sequestration. With regard to provisioning services, the synthesis of the book provides science-based recommendations for a sustainable land use portfolio including several options such as forestry, pasture management and the practices of indigenous peoples. In closing, the authors show how they integrated the local society by pursuing capacity building in compliance with the CBD-ABS (Convention on Biological Diversity - Access and Benefit Sharing), in the form of education and knowledge transfer for application.