Sharing the bead-to-bead protection of Duraskin, the Hardshell casing of this folding tyre wraps further into the sidewall with the extra-wide PolyX Breaker covering the entire tread strip from shoulder-to-shoulder. Great for Winter use. The long distance runner. A durable carbon black mixture, a well regarded puncture protection system and the DuraSkin™-anti-cut fabric turn the GatorSkin into a real long distance runner. In varying widths of 23mm and 25mm it can be used on the way to work as well as training for road races or for sportives and audax. A durable, tough tyre at a really nice price. HardShell Puncture protection and mileage are the strengths of Hardshell-ProTection. A wider PolyX Breaker®, the specialist against punctures under the tread centre and shoulders provides for great reliability. The three ply – each layer with 60 TPI – carcass covers the entire tyre and makes it a real bastion against urban detritus. The outer sidewalls of the tyre are reinforced with DuraSkin® fabric providing even more reliability due to the casing being so well protected. Hardshell tyres are the puncture-resistant flagship amongst racing tyres – produced exclusively in Germany.
Master's Thesis from the year 2010 in the subject Forestry / Forestry Economics, grade: B, Wageningen University, course: Forestry / Forestry Economics, language: English, abstract: Deforestation and forest degradation account for up to 20% of the total annual anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. As a result, current approaches to address climate change include strategies to reduce deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD). Even though REDD is still under discussion within the UNFCCC framework, many REDD pilot projects are being implemented across the tropics. Securing local communities' tenure rights and their equitable access to forest conservation benefits are critical in REDD because local communities could be excluded from REDD benefits if their land and forest access rights are not adequately addressed. In Cambodia, two REDD pilot projects: Community Forestry Carbon Offset Project (CFCOP) in Oddar Meanchey province and the Seima Protection Forest Project (SPF) in Mundulkiri province, are being implemented. This study aims to contribute to the development of an effective REDD mechanism in Cambodia by examining land and forest tenures and benefit sharing arrangements under the two REDD pilot projects in Cambodia. The paper employs concepts of discourse coalitions and rules of the game to explain tenure rights and benefit sharing arrangements in the two projects. The study is based on literature review, analysis of key text documents and interviews with 19 respondents from government, civil society, donor community, community and private sector involved in the two REDD pilot projects and from outside. Results show that the two REDD pilot projects are being implemented in community forests and protection forests. In both projects, local communities are granted forest access rights. In addition, the projects have legitimized tenure rights of local communities in the project areas as provided for through the Land and Forestry Law in Cambodia. The study also indicates that revenues from carbon credits generated by the projects will be shared with the local communities. According to the Government Decision No.699, more than 50% of net revenues will be channeled to local communities in the CFCOP while the sharing of the revenues in the SPF is still under consideration. The study offers lessons that could guide other REDD projects in securing local communities' forest access rights and their rights to benefits from forest conservation.
Seminar paper from the year 2010 in the subject Business economics - Trade and Distribution, grade: 1,0, University of Frankfurt (Main) (Wirtschaftswissenschaften), course: Economics of Climate Change, language: English, abstract: This academic paper targets the intergenerational risk sharing dilemma of the current international policy effort to establish conditions of global cooperation for a global carbon price which could, with an adequate carbon-pricing framework, reduce and share cost of mitigation in an efficient, effective and equitable way helping to decouple growth from greenhouse gas emissions.
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This book covers policy proposals and interim contracts, assesses the positions of various Iraqi political actors and examines the potential significance for international foreign policy goals in Iraq. Despite a lack of progress in reaching agreements on the hydro-carbon sector and revenue sharing legislation to set new conditions for the management of the country&#8217;s significant oil and gas resources, development in Iraq&#8217;s oil and gas sector is moving forward. The passage of the oil and gas sector framework and revenue sharing legislation will be seen as significant milestones by International governments and International Oil Companies (IOC´s). This would provide evidence of the Iraqi government&#8217;s dedication to promoting political reconciliation and providing a solid foundation for long term economic development in Iraq. Interim revenue sharing mechanisms have been introduced due to the lack of new legislation. Additionally, both the Federal Government (the Federal Oil Ministry-MoO) and the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) (the Regional Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy) have made oil and gas development deals with foreign firms. The MoO is working with existing regulation from the previous political and administrational regime, while the Regional Ministry of Resource and Energy Kurdistan-Iraq has designed its own laws and regulations, which the Federal Government has not yet recognized. There is wide recognition among Iraqis of the importance of oil and gas revenue for the Iraqi economy. Most groups see the need for new legal and policy guidelines for the development of the country&#8217;s oil and natural gas resources. However, Iraq&#8217;s Council of Representatives (parliament) has not yet considered the proposed legislation due to ongoing political discord and general political instability. There are strong differences on key issues between Iraqi critics and supporters of various proposed solutions. These include the appropriate role and powers of federal and regional authorities in regulating oil and gas development; the conditions and degree of potential foreign participation in the oil and gas sectors; and proposed formulas and mechanisms for equitably sharing oil and gas revenue. Simultaneously, there are strong disagreements on related discussions about the administrative status of the city of Kirkuk and proposed amendments to articles of Iraq&#8217;s constitution that outline federal and regional oil and gas rights. The U.S. and UK military strategy in Iraq seeks to lay the ground work for an environment in which Iraqis can resolve core political differences in order to ensure national stability and security. However, it is not yet certain whether the proposed oil and gas legislation and ongoing interim efforts to develop Iraq&#8217;s energy resources will support harmony or create deeper political tension. The United States and its allies face difficult decisions regarding how to work with Iraqis on assorted policy proposals, related constitutional reforms and oil and gas development contracts, and at the same time encouraging their Iraqi counterparts to ensure that the content of proposed laws, amendments and contracts reflect acceptable political compromises. In the 1920s a wide-ranging concession was granted to a consortium of oil companies known as the Turkish Petroleum company and later as the Iraq Petroleum Company. This was the beginning of oil exploration in Iraq. The nationalization of Iraq&#8217;s oil resources and production was finished by 1975. From 1975 to 2003, oil production and export operations were entirely state operated. However, from the early 1980s until the toppling of Saddam Hussein&#8217;s government in 2003, the negative effects of war, international sanctions, a shortage of investments and technology and, in many cases, mismanagement caused difficulties for Iraq&#8217;s hydrocarbon infrastructure.
'We are undergoing a historical transformation in the way we create and disseminate energy. Together, Internet technology and the reality of renewable energy are creating a new type of electrical grid, one in which energy is stored and distributed on an individual basis. Soon, hundreds of millions of human beings will be generating their own green energy in their homes, offices and factories, and sharing it, just as they now create their own information and share it on the Internet. In just a few years, millions of buildings and even cities will become energy self-sufficient, signaling the end of our reliance on fossil fuels. This transformation is already underway in Europe, where author Jeremy Rifkin serves as EU advisor on a project that will revolutionize the continent's energy supply, with Asia to follow. We even see shades of it in Texas, Colorado, and California, where electrical companies will be laying down parts of the Smart Grid over the next several years. But it's not just about the promise of clean energy. Rather, this 'Energy Internet' will fundamentally change every aspect of the way we work and live. It will foster continental markets and the creation of continental political unions to oversee new expansive commercial opportunities. It will signify the end of needless wars fought over energy sources, and the dawning of an era of true international cooperation. Finally, it offers the hope that we can get to a post-carbon era by mid century and avert catastrophic climate change. Here, Rifkin explains how the United States can embrace this ambitious vision of the future, end its decades-old crisis over foreign oil, and ensure its continued status as world power. He also paints an accessible, anecdotal picture of what our lives will look like in this new global order-if we can summon the political will to join it'--
Cloud computing has caused a marketing fog, confusing business executives seeking to understand the technology's potential applications and business benefits. A Quick-Start Guide to Cloud Computing cuts through the industry hype and provides non-technical explanations about what it is and how it can improve your business. With case studies from large and small business, it shows how enabling a remote workforce and sharing resources can reduce your organisation's carbon footprint. It describes: the benefits of cloud computing; how to choose the right supplier and technologies for your particular business; key security issues and the perils and pitfalls to avoid. This Quick Start Guide puts business needs before technology, enabling you to make confident decisions about IT strategy, make the right choices for your business and reject 'solutions' that fix problems you don't have.
The book, written by acclaimed experts from China , is an output of the Low-Carbon City China (LCCC) Programme. It provides an overview of the low-carbon progress in various Chinese cities, identifies their strengths and weaknesses, and enables the development of renewable energy, green buildings and sustainable transportation. The book also aims to develop a vision, strategy, action plan and supervision system to promote low-carbon city construction, enabling best practice knowledge sharing and developing comprehensive, yet China-specific, low-carbon standards and management systems.
This volume is on the flexibility mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol and summarises the main fmdings of a two day workshop on 'Dealing with Carbon Credits after Kyoto', organised by ETC and the JIN foundation (both from the Netherlands) in Callantsoog, the Netherlands, on 28-29 May 1998. The workshop was one of the fIrst meetings held on the flexibility mechanisms after the Kyoto Protocol had been accepted at the Third Conference of the Parties (CoP3) in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997. During the workshop it became clear that during the stage of translating the Protocol provisions on the flexibility mechanisms (notably Articles 6, 12 and 17) into concrete action, there are still many questions on how to interpret the scope and meaning of the Protocol text precisely. Indeed, various issues need to be elaborated on before a full assessment of the future practical work - the start of CDM and JI projects and possibly international emissions trading - can be made. Several issues were addressed at the workshop: e. g. how and via which procedures to determine the net abatement of particular CDMIJI projects; who is liable for non compliance in international emissions trading; is there a need for credit sharing formulae; can incentives be provided for early action, etc.
REDD/REDD+ is an emerging market based approach under UNFCCC and has become mechanism to mitigate climate change and enhance carbon stock in Forest. The context of forestry and socioeconomic setting in Nepal is of the unique type, and Nepal has to compete with the countries like Brazil and Indonesia for forest resource and with the countries like USA and Canada for other resources. Since, Nepal is well-known for CBFM in world- REDD/REDD+ mechanism must include the Community Forests while implementing it, but we have lack of necessary institutional and legal framework to support for. Benefit sharing and payment mechanism is the topic of hottest debate to address in this context; apprehending the scenario- this book attempted to explore prospects from grass-root level to address the issue analyzing reflection from concerned stakeholders and communities.